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Fluid mechanics

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Understand the basic of fluid mechanics
Explain scope of the subject
Define fluid
Classify fluid
Define fluid mechanics
Classify fluid mechanics
Define statics, kinematics and dynamics
Define hydraulics
Differentiate between ideal fluid and real fluid
Mention various properties of fluids
Define density, specific volume, specific gravity and solve simple problems.
Define viscosity, dynamic viscosity, kinematics viscosity and their units
Define surface tension, capillarity, compressibility, bulk modulus and their units
Define fluid pressure and its units
1.10.1 Explain the difference between absolute pressure, atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure and vacuum pressure
1.10.2 Explain pressure head of a liquid
1.10.3 State Pascal’s law
1.10.4 Classify pressure measuring instruments
1.10.5 Explain simple and differential manometers with sketches and state their advantages and limitations
1.10.6 Explain the construction and working principle of Bourdon tube and diaphragm gauges
1.10.7 Explain briefly vacuum gauges and mention their types
2.0 Understand the basic principles of fluid statics
2.1 Define total pressure and centre of pressure
2.2 Explain buoyancy, metacentre and metacentric height
2.3 State Archimedes principle of buoyancy
2.4 State types of equilibrium of floating bodies
2.5 Explain stable, unstable and neutral equilibria
3.0 Understand the basic principle of fluid kinematics
3.1 State types of fluid flow
3.1.1 Define steady flow and unsteady flow
3.1.2 Define uniform flow and non- uniform flow
3.1.3 Define one, two and three dimensional flow
3.1.4 Define rotational and irrotational flow
3.1.5 Define compressible and incompressible flows
3.2 Define rate of flow or discharge
3.3 State law of continuity and explain continuity equation
3.4 Solve simple problems on discharge and law of continuity.
4.0 Understand the principles of fluid dynamics and its applications
4.1 Mention and explain types of head of liquid in motion
4.1.1 Explain potential energy, kinetic energy, pressure energy and total head
4.2 State Bernoulli’s theorem
4.2.1 Explain Bernoulli’s equation (without proof)
4.2.2 State the assumptions made in Bernoulli’s theorem
4.2.3 Solve simple problems on Bernoulli’s theorem
4.3 Mention the practical applications of Bernoulli’s theorem
4.3.1 Explain horizontal venturimeter, flow nozzle, orifice meter and pitot’s tube with
expressions for discharge
4.3.2 Solve simple problems on the above
5.0 Understand the principles of fluid flow through pipes
5.1 Define loss of head in pipes due to friction
5.1.1 Mention major energy losses and minor energy losses
5.1.2 State the Darcy- weisbach’s formula (without proof)
5.1.3 State the chezy’s formula (without proof)
5.2 Explain Hydraulic gradient and total energy lines
5.3 Explain principle of working of syphon system
5.4 Derive an expression for power transmission through pipes
5.4.1 State the condition for maximum transmission of power (without proof)
5.4.2 Explain the maximum efficiency of transmission of power
5.4.3 Solve simple problems on power transmission through pipes
5.5 Explain water hammer in pipes
6.0 Understand the impact of jet on vanes
6.1 Derive an expression for the force of jet exerted on a fixed flat plate held normal to the jet
6.2 Derive an expression for the force of jet exerted on a fixed flat plate held inclined to the jet
6.3 Derive an expression for the force of jet exerted on a fixed curved plate
6.4 Derive an expression for the force of jet exerted on a moving flat plate held normal to the jet
6.5 Derive an expression for the force of jet exerted on a moving flat plate held
inclined to the jet
6.6 Derive an expression for the force of jet exerted on flat plates fixed on the rim of wheel
6.7 Explain power and efficiency of jet with formulae
6.8 Solve simple problems on the above
6.9 Draw velocity diagram and explain the jet striking on moving curved vane tangentially at one tip and leaving at the other
7.0 Understand the working of hydraulic turbines
7.1 Explain the scope of hydraulic turbines
7.1.1 Define hydraulic turbines
7.1.2 Classify hydraulic turbines
7.2 Explain working principle of impulse turbine
7.2.1 Describe the construction and explain the working principle of pelton wheel
7.2.2 State the formulae for work done and efficiency pf pelton wheel
7.2.3 State the different types head
7.2.3.1 Define gross head and state its formula
7.2.3.2 Define net or effective head and state its formula
7.2.4 State the different types of efficiencies of pelton wheel
7.2.4.1 Define hydraulic, mechanical, volumetric and overall efficiencies and mention
their formulae and solve simple problems
7.3 Explain the principle of reaction turbines
7.3.1 Describe the construction and working of Francis turbine
7.3.2 Define and state formulae for Work done and efficiency of Francis turbine (with out proof)
7.3.3 Explain penstock, Anchor block, surge tank and draft tube
7.3.4 Define Unit power, unit speed and unit discharge- Specific speed and mention their significance
7.3.4.1 Solve Simple problems.
7.3.5 Explain the following -Performance Characteristics of turbines-main or constant head, operating or constant speed, constant efficiency or Iso efficiency or Muschel curves
7.3.6 Explain criteria for Selection of turbines – viz, based on specific speed and head of water.
7.3.7 Compare impulse and reaction turbines
8.0 Understand the working of Centrifugal Pumps
8.1 Definitions- pumps and centrifugal Pumps
8.1.1 Explain Scope of pumps
8.1.2 Classify pumps
8.2 Explain the Principle of operation and constructional details of a centrifugal pump
8.2.1 Explain types of casing.
8.3 Define Work done by a centrifugal pump and state the formula without proof
8.4 State the various Heads of centrifugal pumps
8.5 Explain the Efficiency, Discharge and Power required in a centrifugal pump with formulae.
8.6 Derive on expression for Minimum starting speed of a centrifugal pump.
8.7 Define and state the formula of Specific speed
8.8 Simple problems on the above
8.9 Explain Priming of centrifugal pump.
8.10 Explain cavitation and its effects in centrifugal pump
8.11 Explain multistage centrifugal pumps for high heads and high discharge and their uses
8.12 Explain the criteria for Selection of pumps
8.13 Explain the operational difficulties in centrifugal pumps
9.0 Understand the working of Reciprocating pumps
9.1 Definition of Reciprocating pumps and its applications
9.2 Classify reciprocating pumps
9.3 Explain the Principle of operation, Constructional details and working reciprocating pumps
9.4 Derive on expression for discharge, work done and Power required to drive a reciprocating pump
9.5 Explain Slip, Negative slip and co-efficient of discharge in reciprocating pump.
9.6 Solve simple problems on the above
9.7 Explain the construction of Air vessel and its functions
9.8 Differentiate between centrifugal and reciprocating pumps
9.9 Special purpose pumps-Construction, working and uses of submersible pump, Jet pump, Air lift pump

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